Map of the world, 1720
(Original Caption) 18th century map of the world. Published in Paris in 1720, this French map shows the known world, including the new lands that had been discovered in the preceding centuries by Europeans exploring across the Atlantic and far to the East around Africa. It divides the Earth into a western and eastern hemisphere, and uses colour to mark different areas of land. The map is by Guillaume de l'Isle (1675-1726), the leading French cartographer of the eighteenth century. He was appointed Premier Geographe du Roi to King Louis XV in 1718. This edition of his world map includes the western and northern coastlines of Australia, mapped by the Dutch. Australia's eastern coastline would not be mapped until 1770.
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Map of the Americas, 1660
17th century map of the Americas. Published in Amsterdam in 1660, this map by the Dutch cartographer Frederick de Witt (1630-1706) shows the geography of the Americas, the New World being explored by Europeans. The exploration of South America was well advanced by this stage, but large swathes of North America had yet to be mapped. The artworks across top show various cities, from left to right: Cusco (Peru); Tenochtitlan (labelled Mexico, now Mexico City); Olinda (Brazil); Havana (Cuba); San Domingo (Hispaniola); and Cartagena (Colombia). The artworks at left and right show natives of Virginia (north-eastern North America), Chile and Brazil, and the 'Magellanic' people of Patagonia.
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Both parents take turns in incubating the egg, holding it on their feet (see bird at left). These birds are found in the subantarctic and on cool islands in temperate areas of the southern hemisphere. They are very social animals, living and breeding in large colonies which can contain thousands of birds. They feed on small fish and squid, diving below the surface of the water to catch their prey. They often hunt in groups. The king penguin is the second largest penguin in the world, reaching a height of around 1 metre. Only the emperor penguin is bigger. Photographed at Royal Bay, on the island of South Georgia.
© British Antarctic Survey/Science Photo Library