Al-Idrisis world map, 1154
Al-Idrisi's world map. This world map, known as the 'Tabula Rogeriana', dates from 1154, and is orientated with North at bottom. It was drawn by Muhammad Al-Idrisi (1100-1165), an Islamic and Andalusian scholar working for King Roger II of Sicily. It is considered to have been the most accurate world map for the next three centuries. Regions shown include Europe (lower right), the Mediterranean Sea (centre right), North Africa (upper right), the Arabian Peninsula (upper centre), the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (lower centre), and parts of Asia (left). This is a restoration and transliteration carried out in 1927 by the German scholar Konrad Miller (1844-1933).
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Extirpation of the Plagues of Egypt:- Destruction of Revolutionary Crocodiles, 1798
XYC289253 Extirpation of the Plagues of Egypt:- Destruction of Revolutionary Crocodiles, 1798 (hand-coloured etching) by Gillray, James (1757-1815); 24.4x35.6 cm; Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, USA; (add.info.: or - the British Hero Cleansing ye Mouth of ye Nile; refers to defeat of French navy at Aboukir Bay in 1798 by Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805); French ships depicted as crocodiles;); English, out of copyright
© Copyright: www.bridgemanart.com
Pharos lighthouse, Ptolemaic Egypt
Pharos lighthouse. Historical artwork showing what the Pharos lighthouse at Alexandria, Egypt, in the third century BC, might have looked like. The lighthouse, also known as the Pharos of Ptolemy, was designed by Sostratus of Cnidus, and built in the reign of Pharaoh Ptolemy Philadelphus between 285 and 247 BC. It was built from white marble, and fires were used at night, and mirrors in the day, to direct ships into the bay of Alexandria. Its height was between 115 and 135 metres, one of the tallest man-made objects of the time, and one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It was destroyed by several earthquakes in the 14th century. Artwork from The Picture Magazine (volume 111, London, 1894).
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY