'Scotland for Ever'; the charge of the Scots Greys at Waterloo, 18 June 1815. Artist: Unknown
'Scotland for Ever'; the charge of the Scots Greys at Waterloo, 18 June 1815. The attack by the Royal Scots Greys cavalry regiment on the French 45th infantry was immortalised in this famous painting of 1881 by Lady Elizabeth Butler (1846-1933). The wife of a general as well as a popular Victorian painter, she persuaded the commander of the regiment to reconstruct the charge so she could make the painting. Some military historians doubt that the action actually took the form of the spectacular headlong charge depicted in the picture. What is known however is that the Scots Greys overpursued the French infantry, became split into disorganised small groups, and suffered heavy casualties at the hands of French cavalry formations before they were able to regain the British lines.
© Ann Ronan Picture Library / Heritage-Images
Flag of Ireland Illustration
Also known as the "Tricolour," the national flag of the Republic of Ireland has three equal stripes illustrate the Irish political landscape as accurately today as in 1848, the year the flag was first unfurled.
orange — standing for Irish Protestants
green — signifying Irish Catholics and the republican cause
white — representing the hope for peace between them
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US exploration of Mars, artwork
US exploration of Mars, artwork. Astronaut preparing to plant the flag of the United States of America (USA) on the Martian surface. Mars is a rocky desert world with no surface water and a gravity about one third of that on Earth. The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and surface temperatures are well below freezing. The thin atmosphere means that flags need to be rigid rather than made of cloth. Human missions to explore Mars have been planned since the 1950s, usually involving a period of 10 to 30 years to develop the necessary technology and resources. The most recent US plan, NASA's Constellation Program, had a Martian mission as its ultimate aim, but as of 2010 has an uncertain future.
© DETLEV VAN RAVENSWAAY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY